LunAres Moon/Mars Analogue Station, Lunar Crew III, Pila, PL 2018
Mission Commander exploring insitu Spatial Performance Environment Command Transmission Realities for Astronauts
Lunar Analogue Mission Simulation
Space Garden Company (Flight Director/Remote ConOps/Owner)
Space Is More (Local Mission Support/LunAres Facility Manager)
Commander: Dr. Sarah Jane Pell, AU. Vice Commander: Omar Samra, EG. Medical Officer: Andrea Rădulescu, CA/RO. Geoscientist: Dr. Sian Proctor, US. Bioengineer: Jaden Hastings, AU/US, Mission Specialists (VR): Mark Splittgerber, AU, (LiDAR): Robert Szyszko, PL.
Situated in a white ziggurat on top of a former nuclear bunker in Pila, Poland, the LunAres MoonMars Station provides chronobiological effects on the mind/body similar to those experienced in space living in stations connected to lava tubes or dark craters in this case simulated by a closed hanger filled with simulant Moon/Mars regolith for hosting confined low-visibility EVA operations. The Lunares III Crew (SPECTRA) research profile included studies of biological and living systems technology, habitability, operational technology, remote immersive communication, human expression and performance under stress. The evolution of two HCI research project scenarios: Loss of Power (LoP) and Loss of Crew (LoC) in particular, highlight the process of iteration on the research design in-situ for exploiting promising results. They provide a foundation for ultra-high- resolution 360° lunar scenography data, from the real- world lunar analogue environment, supporting a range of transmedia interactivity and iterative performance investigations for the flagship project SPECTRA: an acronym for Spatial Performance Environment Command Transmission Realities for Astronauts. Preliminary results focus on RoE activities to improve extra-terrestrial life, EVA RoA performance through VR and live Moon-Earth-Moon transmission, and embodied 360° EVA training, capture, and performance immersion.
Our mission simulation occurs in 2030. The site is the Leuwin Crater; a yet to-be-discovered permanently dark crater, which provides clear views of the universe without the interference from the visual noise from Earth. Permanent crews are working to establish facilities and operations that will support the Teela Telescope Array and point for deep space observation and communication. In the scenario, this is the most significant example of human engineering since the build of the International Space Station and the rapid acceleration of intelligent robotic exploration. Lucy Electric has built a state-of-the- art lunar outpost at the Crater with the support of public and private partnerships. The main habitat: the LunAres Station comfortably accommodates 4 long-duration Crew, and 2 Mission Specialists on shifts between Earth and Lunar Gateway transfer orbits. The main job of the crew is to install power to the facilities for human habitation and deep space observation. With expert teams and support from Earth and low Earth orbit, the crew designs and tests future-focused creative research experiments. Physical, psychological and engineering challenges, habitability, art, science, education and outreach activities are all aimed at supporting life on the Moon and inspiring the will for further investment in the human services necessary in supporting onward exploration goals.
Summary of Research Experiments
All research required approval from the LunAres Scientific Advisory group and Polish Research Council. Formal research required Ethics Approvals from a national authority and Informed Consent by the host and crew. Complementary activities could include non- formal technical and cultural engagement as scope of works for future studies or creative publication. The final curated research program of interrelated art, science and technology by themes were as follows:
1. Psychology (Psy)
[1.1] Personality types and group effectiveness.
[1.2] Group dynamics, cultural background and personality types.
[1.3] Psychological condition and isolated environments.
[1.4] Interval: wearable AR device.
Future lunar missions require deep study of psychological and physiological risks and the pursuit of realistic countermeasures to support crews. Psychological research led by Dr. Agata Kołodziejczyk focused on perception including online models of human perceptual systems: practical spinning tests for vision, pattern perception, audition, motion perception, spatial understanding, haptics; situational awareness, modelling vestibular workloads, evaluating mission adaptation, effectiveness of interactive lighting systems; mission communications; and workload including distribution of tasks between crew with respect to human performance and capabilities, both physically and cognitively.
2. Physiology (Phy)
[2.1] Health and Human Performance during a Short-Duration Simulated Lunar Surface Mission.
[2.2] Hexoskin shirt: UX wearable body metric monitoring.
[2.3] Optical Illusion Zero-G system.
[2.4] LifeTree: pursed lip breathing VR.
Analogue astronauts may also experience alterations in physiological systems. Untethered Exploration sponsored and mentored Samra & Rădulesc on an integrated suite of functional tests based on the NASA Spaceflight Human System Standard including: Physical Activity Characterization, Body Composition, Functional Movement Screen, Estimated Aerobic Capacity: 20 meter square shuttle run VO2max, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Vitals: blood pressure, resting heart rate, Stress Index, Heart Rate Variability, Fitness Test: strength, endurance, and flexibility, Food Frequency, Working Memory Assessment, Modified Functional Task Test Analysis. Samra also designed and reported on Physical activity/ exercise countermeasures.
3. Microbiology, Sanitation and Hygiene (HYG)
[3.1] Assessment of human health and the microflora of the environment.
[3.2] Ultraviolet light and LED lighting control.
In space analogues we must expand our understanding of symbiotic and pathogenic relationships between human and microbial inhabitants of contained spaces. We consider micro-biotic flora as co-habitants, even fellow explorers, within the space environment, rather than interlopers. This suite of research investigates the elements that both support and inhibit all forms of living systems (also see 4 Lab projects).
4. Clinical and Laboratory Diagnostics (LAB)
[4.1] Longitudinal study of Lunar habitat microbiome population shift.
[4.2] Parameters of the environment and the microclimate.
LunAres offers unique clinical diagnostic conditions. Principal Investigator A/Prof. Christopher E. Mason conducted a study of crew microbiota alterations, from gastrointestinal to skin and mouth swabs, to map the individual health response to stress, and the transfer or homogenisation between crew. This was the first analogue crew sample set following the release of his findings on the NASA Twins Study. Crew monitored aspects of the environmental microclimates daily and took swabs of the habitat to contextualise clinical and laboratory diagnostics. Mason recommended to NASA HQ further work on analogues.
5. Operations and Technology (OPS)
[5.1] HabitatOS: Open Source Operating System for Extraterrestrial Habitats.
[5.2] Lunar Luggage: Needs of the crew and consumption of resources.
[5.3] MEAL Moon Environment Appetite Log: Photos of dining dynamics/ Moon Mood Dining: Survey on Mood of Food in Space.
[5.4] Circadian Clock/ Subjective Time Perception.
All crew contributed to the operational design, development, testing and evaluation of Lunares Human factors via user-feedback on the HabitatOS: a beta Open Source Operating System for Analogue Missions by Matt Harasymczuk, Assessing modules and work stations for architects SpaceIsMore, and Work modes for Space Garden Company including Time standardisation shifts as required for mission execution, Circadian rhythms, lighting controls, perceptual and physical moods and capabilities; Changes in mood at meal times (under the UV light); appraisal of custom tools such as the PUMA-1 Protective Universal Modular Armour spacesuit with an assistive exoskeleton; Refined day-to-day in-SIM-logistics such as waste management, stores and water inventories; and Emergency Procedures i.e. in the case of a meteor shower, or plumbing failure.
6. Extravehicular Activity (EVA)
[6.1] High Voltage Switching VR Training.
[6.2] Trident RMU: Using special equipment and tools on the Moon.
[6.3] LiDAR: EVA Planning with 3D Maps.
[6.4] SpaceSuitUP: Simulated Spacesuit Range of Motion Testing.
[6.5] ROV: Tele-Operated Lunar Rover Navigation Using LIDAR.
The extravehicular activity puts into practice systems thinking, innovation and human factors. I design concurrent EVA operations and technology research in mission planning for surface activities and interactions with essential infrastructures of a lunar outpost. From space-suit range of motion studies, to vehicles, specialist utilities and mixed reality robotics, our surface operation activities measures the crew ability to coordinate in-situ locomotion and cognitive responses with a spacesuit, a rover, virtual reality, headlamp, backpack, hand-tools, radio communications, and operations in a dark, uneven hazardous environments, and face the likely stressors of emergency drills on an outpost.
7. Biological experiments (BIO)
[7.1] BioSuit: living biological material wearables.
[7.2] Plant-derived hydrogels.
[7.3] Growing microgreens.
[7.4] BioPen: application for bioprinting device in space.
This research continues evaluation strategies for generating an optimal environment to sustain life within a confined, resource-constrained habitat. Bioengineer Hastings nurtured the growth of a nutritive source of fresh micro-greens in hydroponic and aeroponic systems as a source of food, material for hygienic and clinical purposes. Core crew were subjects in an assessment of biomaterial devices for fabrication in the habitat environment including living kombucha.
8. Contemporary Art, Media, and Culture (ART)
[8.1] Moonhenge: monolithic rockart.
[8.2] Lunar Vitriol: miniature crystal art.
[8.3] Rover/LiDAR. Loss of Crew (LoC) Drill.
[8.4] Trident High Voltage Switch Training/ Loss of Power (LoP) Emergency Drill.
[8.5] SPECTRA Performance transmission.
Creating works of art, and design tactics for engaging space phenomena within a mission simulation increases opportunities for enabling discovery and legacy. As Principal Investigator, I employ performance-as-research and transdisciplinary practices to explore affective visualisation by interactions with new media dance technologies. These engagements support forums for reflexive analysis of our human ambitions, and our cultural assumptions about a human return to the Moon and budding extra-terrestrial culture.
9. Education, Outreach, and Community (EDU)
[9.1] Pre Flight: tree planting ceremony.
[9.2] LONDON SCI-FI Film Festival.
[9.3] Culture Night: national cusine and presentations.
[9.4] Need4Space Podcast.
[9.5] ISU Space Masquarade.
[9.6] Crew 1-Sec Per Day micro-documentaries.
[9.7] VIP Up-link transmissions.
[9.8] Lunar Olympiad: athletic games.
[9.9] Evil Corp: boardgame.
From a pre-flight Tree Planting Ceremony, to a pop-up curated LONDON SCI-FI Film Festival, well-wishes from Astronauts and International Space Station Flight Controllers, and a Landing Ceremony, the aim of a cross-platform outreach program was to connect the mission and crew experience to audiences. Samra and Proctor also focus on STEAM education to share our journey with the youth, reflecting on our trials and triumphs, and building connections between the crew and wider community including a Need4Space Podcast, and Crew 1-Sec Per Day micro-documentaries.
 Pell, S.J. (2018) The Agency of Human-Robotic Lunatics. In Proc. 69th International Astronautical Congress, Bremen DE 1-5 Oct, 2018. IAC-18 B3,9-GTS.2.
 Pell, S.J. (2018) The Artist, Astronaut, and Avatar in Space Exploration. In Proc. CHIPlay'18 Computer-Human Interaction in Play 2018 Oct 23 (pp. 3-3). ACM
 Pell, S.J. (2019) Apollo and the Muses: a preliminary discussion of the cultural and technical inspirational knowledge embedded in the lunar space arts of an analogue mission. In Proc. 70th International Astronautical Congress, Washington D.C. US, Oct 21-25, 2019. IAC-19-E5,3.12
 Pell, S.J., Kobrick, R.L, Barnes, D.G. (2019) Human Spaceflight Performance: Bootstrapping the intersections of Biometrics and Artistic Expression through planetary mission analogue EVAs. In Proc. 70th International Astronautical Congress, Washington D.C. US, Oct 21-25, 2019. IAC-19-B3,9-GTS.2
Thanks to all LunAres III Mission Crew and Partners including the Mission Command (PL) Space Garden Company: Dr. Agata Kołodziejczyk, Matt Harasymczuk, Marcin Temple. Analogue Crew: Dr. Sarah Jane Pell, Omar Samra, Dr. Sian Proctor, Andreea Rădulescu. Mission Specialists: Jaden Hastings, Mark Splittgerber, Robert Szyszko, Legendary Rover Company. Mission Support (PL) Space Is More: Leszek Orzechowski, Szyzmon Grys, Bogdan Jasiński, Agnieszka Gryś, Lucie Davidová, Agata Mintus, Mr. T., Mateusz Krainski, Kuba Falacin and team... Medical Support: Dr. Aleksander Waśniowski, Dr. Zuza Sobiak. Future Control Room (AU) MIVP: Andreas Hamacher, Owen Kaluza, Toan Ngygen, Daniel Waghorn, Richard Move, John Pollard. Principal Investigators: A/Prof. David G. Barnes, A/Prof. Chris E. Mason, Dr. Jamie Guined, Dr. Ryan Kobrick, Rakesh Patibander, Sean Elliot, Prof. Kamil Kamijski. Co-Investigators: Prof. Floyd Mueller, Prof. Peter Choong, Prof. Gordon Wallace, Prof. Gordon Kapsa, Dr. Tracy Alloway, Prof. Sheryl Bishop, Prof. Alicja Panasiewicz, Dr. Elizabeth Presa, Maryam Nabavi, Robert Bolton, Udit Vira, Alyssa Alikpala, Piotr Pandyra, Elphie Dennen, Louis Savvy.
The crew also send their gratitude to the following VIPs who sent surprise video messages of support: NASA Astronaut Scott Parazynski, Korean Astronaut Soyeon Yi, ISS Flight Controller Andrea Boyd, Mars500 Analogue Astronaut Romain Charles, Queen Jadwiga Astronomical Observatory Dr. Bogdan Wszołek, Liquifer Systems Director Dr. Barbara Imhof, HI-SEAS Analogue Astronaut Dr. Angelo Vermuelen, S.U.I.T.Lab Director Dr. Ryan Kobrick, Poet-Inventor Benjamin P. Burke, LONDON SCI-FI Director Louis Savvy, Practon Group, Weill Cornell Medical Centre A/Prof. Chris E. Mason, Space designer Maryam Nabavi, HCI designer Rakesh Patibander, Author David Hocking, Rough Science Sean Elliot, family and freinds.
Declaration of Support
The ‘Performing Astronautics’ project is supported by the Australian Government through the Australia Council, its arts funding and advisory body.
The SPECTRA project is co-produced by Monash Immersive Visualisation Platform with the support of Space Garden Company, Legendary Rover, Leica Geosystems, MADA Artist-in-Residence Richard Move.
Lucy Electric LLC sponsored the High Voltage Switch EVA concept devised by Kjetil Wormnes and realised with input from Barry Janse Van Rensburg, Zac Trolley, and Sarah Jane Pell, with use of mechanical hardware and a sponsorship for the participation of young engineer on the crew Mark Splittgerber. He represented Practon Group who coordinated the build of a LunAres Trident fixed Ring Main Unit (FRMU) Switch training VR developed by Sentient Computing with digital assets by SpaceCorp, Spellart, and Visitor.Vision.
Mission Simulation: 27 Jan – 10 Feb, 2018
LunAres III (SPECTRA) Mission Patch
Bending Horizons 360°, 2018
Monash Immersive Visualisation Platform MIVP Artist-in-Residence. Affective EVA performance tool experiments.
The Agency of Human Robotic Lunatics, 2018 IAC Paper
Interactive arts-led research on analogue EVA.
Human Spaceflight Performance, 2019 IAC Paper
Bootstrapping the intersections of Biometrics and Artistic Expression through planetary mission analogue EVAs.
SPECTRA, 2018 Performance
Spatial Performance Environment Command Transmission Realities for Astronauts.
Research into use of Interactive pursed lipped breathing VR Game in Analogue Missions.